Humans have the most complex array of facial musculature in all the animal kingdoms, and correspondingly the most elaborate and subtle mechanisms for controlling those muscles.

The facial expression has evolved as one of our most important social skills, and our ability to both recognize and communicate our feelings through often tiny facial movements is unparalleled, and is of enormous, irreplaceable value in strengthening our social bonds.

The use of osteotomy techniques is an effective way to ensure a successful outcome when surgically correcting posttraumatic nasal deviations. The right technique will depend on your unique situation. In general, perforating osteotomies will preserve more soft tissue support than linear osteotomies.

Sequential osteotomies, occasionally combined with intermediate osteotomies, are useful in straightening an extremely deviated nasal pyramid.

A clinical study was conducted to evaluate the methodology, surgical reconstruction techniques, and cost of cleft lip-palate deformity procedures in Western China. The study included 46 procedures performed on 42 patients in Lanzhou, China. Patients ranged in age from 6 months to 18 years.

Sagging of the upper eyelid is a common condition impacting elderly people. This condition is often accompanied by excess skin, which may mask its presence. This sagging can be repaired as part of a blepharoplasty procedure. This approach typically produces the best functional and cosmetic results.

This study evaluates the world’s first successful combined face and maxilla transplant, performed at the Cleveland Clinic in December 2008. Based on the results of this procedure, near-total face and maxilla allograft transplant present a novel method for reconstructing massive facial injuries with significant involvement of the facial skeleton.

Three-dimensional facial analysis has many possible applications for facial plastic and reconstructive surgeons. The system can be used to evaluate the facial contour of any population of patients, and it may be used to compare pre-and postoperative results as well as other aesthetic variables associated with facial plastic surgery.

Excellent rhinoplasty results require careful patient evaluation, an understanding of facial aesthetics, and the ability to set appropriate surgical goals for the patient. This article discusses some basics of facial analysis, including methods that use photography, computers, and cephalometrics to study patients pre- and postoperatively.

Otoplasty is a challenging procedure. This article discusses the ways in which the surgical techniques used in otoplasty can be creatively combined to address the specific problems experienced by each individual patient. Combining these techniques based on the unique needs of the patient is the most effective way to achieve a natural and symmetrical appearance.

Facial plastic surgery requires an intimate knowledge of normal facial structure as well as the ability to diagnose structural differences in patients desiring a change to their facial form. In order to adequately evaluate the face, there must be an agreed-upon concept of what is attractive in a particular society.

This article discusses the ways in which an evaluation of anatomic deficiencies is crucial to preoperative planning before facial plastic surgery. Age, gender, race, and culture are all crucial factors that must be addressed during this preoperative phase of the procedure.

This article discusses the anatomy of an aging nose, the special psychological and medical needs of an aging rhinoplasty patient, and some of the surgical approaches to rhinoplasty that will achieve the best possible outcomes in older patients.

In addition, the aesthetic goals for rhinoplasty in older patients are often subtly different from the goals for younger patients. These differences in aesthetic goals should be discussed during the preoperative planning phase in order to establish clear expectations for the outcome of the procedure.

This study reviews the theoretical and experimental mechanics of skin and soft tissues and proposes a mathematical model of skin deformation based on the finite element method. This model can be used to simulate closures and the deformation of a strip of skin.

This article describes the progress of global surgery initiatives, outlines research priorities, reviews metrics that assess the cost-effectiveness of surgical services, and discusses approaches to building surgical capacity to reduce the global surgical burden of disease.

Cleft Craft (Foreword by Dr. Larrabee)
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Read a transcript of renowned facial plastic surgeon Dr. Claus Walter’s address at the Regensburg Conference in Germany. It discusses the development of the European Academy in relation to his professional life.

Dr. Larrabee founded the International Federation of Facial Plastic Surgery Societies (Federation) when he was president of the AAFPRS. In this article, he describes the history of the Federation and how it has developed over the years to become a strong force in the international education of facial plastic surgeons.

Joseph Ka Hoi Wong was born in Guangzhou, China, to two loving parents, Hsi Huang and Ching Lam. He came to Canada at the age of 17.

He completed his medical degree at the University of Toronto, his residency in otolaryngology at the University of West Ontario, and spent a year in Tokyo, Japan, on a fellowship with the renowned cleft lip and palate surgeon Takuya Onizuka, MD. Joe later established a busy and respected private practice in facial plastic surgery and continued throughout his career to be active in academic teaching.


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